d-mannose bladder infections, d-mannose urinary tract infections, d-mannose research
Anti-bacterial defense mechanism of the urinary bladder.
Role of d-mannose in urine.
Toyota S, Fukushi Y, Katoh S, Orikasa S, Suzuki Y [Article in Japanese]
Bacterial adherence to mucosa is thought to be an initial and important
stage to cause urinary tract infection. Among some mechanisms of bacterial
adherence, the role of fimbriae and its receptor is worthy of notice. In
particular, type 1 fimbriae, for which mannose is assumed as a receptor, is
reported as the most common type and called "common fimbriae". Therefore if
a certain amount of mannose is present in urine, it will cover the fimbriae
of bacteria and competitively block the bacterial adherence to bladder
mucosa. As the first step, we tried to detect mannose in urine by high
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sugar can be measured by detecting
the fluorescence which is produced by a sugar separated by ion exchange,
reacting with arginine at high temperature. The results using standard sugar
samples should have highly stable retention time and concentration curve
with the minimum detectable mannose concentration of 0.02 microgram. We
investigated mannose in urine from 186 cases. Since the mannose peak was
often masked by near unidentified peaks, the peak of mannose could be
detected only in 80 cases and its concentration could be measured only in 24
cases. Mannose concentration in the urine of the 24 cases was between 2.6
and 108.7 micrograms/ml and in most of cases it was lower than 20
micrograms/ml. Secondary, we examined the possibility of a mannose in urine
to prevent bacterial adherence to mucosa by the hemagglutination test using
guinea pig erythrocytes and type 1 fimbriated E. coli.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT
PMID: 2576290, UI: 90172805
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Effect of D-mannose and D-glucose on Escherichia coli bacteriuria in
Urol Res 1983;11(2):97-102
Michaels EK, Chmiel JS, Plotkin BJ, Schaeffer AJ.
The effect of D-mannose and D-glucose on bacteriuria due to Escherichia coli
with mannose-sensitive adhesins was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley
rats undergoing diuresis. Inocula of 10(5), 10(7), or 10(8) bacteria in 0.1
ml of normal saline or 2.5% or 10% D-mannose or D-glucose were injected
intravesically and urine was cultured 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days later. The
levels of bacteriuria on days 1 and 5 were significantly lower in rats
inoculated with 10(5) E coli and 10% D-mannose than in controls (p less than
0.05 and 0.01 respectively) and the percentages of rats with less than 100
bacteria/ml were higher on days 1 and 3 (p = 0.05 and 0.02 respectively).
Bacteriuria was significantly lower in rats inoculated with 10(7) bacteria
and 10% D-mannose than in controls on days 5 and 7 (p less than 0.01 for
each day) and the percentage of rats with less than 100 bacteria/ml was
higher on day 7 (p = 0.01). D-glucose reduced bacteriuria significantly only
with a concentration of 10% after instillation of 10(5) E. coli (p less than
0.05, day 1). The results indicate that D-mannose and D-glucose can
significantly reduce bacteriuria within 1 day and that their efficacy is
dependent upon the concentration of both saccharide and bacteria.
PMID: 6346629 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Safe as mother's milk: carbohydrates as future anti-adhesion drugs for
Department of Biological Chemistry, The Weizmann Institute of Science,
Rehovot, Israel. email@example.com Sharon N, Ofek I.
The majority of infectious diseases are initiated by adhesion of pathogenic
organisms to the tissues of the host. In many cases, this adhesion is
mediated by lectins present on the surface of the infectious organism that
bind to complementary carbohydrates on the surface of the host tissues.
Lectin-deficient mutants often lack ability to initiate infection. Soluble
carbohydrates recognized by the bacterial lectins block the adhesion of the
bacteria to animal cells in vitro. Moreover, they have also been shown to
protect against experimental infection by lectin-carrying bacteria in
different organs of mammals such as mice, rabbits, calves and monkeys.
[truncated to 100 words]
Zafriri D, Ofek I, Adar R, Pocino M, Sharon N Department of Human
Microbiology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
Inhibition of bacterial adherence to bladder cells has been assumed to
account for the beneficial action ascribed to cranberry juice and cranberry
juice cocktail in the prevention of urinary tract infections (A. E. Sobota,
J. Urol. 131:1013-1016, 1984). We have examined the effect of the cocktail
and juice on the adherence of Escherichia coli expressing surface lectins of
defined sugar specificity to yeasts, tissue culture cells, erythrocytes, and
mouse peritoneal macrophages. Cranberry juice cocktail inhibited the
adherence of urinary isolates expressing type 1 fimbriae (mannose specific)
and P fimbriae [specific for alpha-D-Gal(1----4)-beta-D-Gal] but had no
effect on a diarrheal isolate expressing a CFA/I adhesin. The cocktail also
inhibited yeast agglutination by purified type 1 fimbriae. The inhibitory
activity for type 1 fimbriated E. coli was dialyzable and could be ascribed
to the fructose present in the cocktail; this sugar was about 1/10 as active
as methyl alpha-D-mannoside in inhibiting the adherence of type 1 fimbriated
bacteria. The inhibitory activity for the P fimbriated bacteria was
nondialyzable and was detected only after preincubation of the bacteria with
the cocktail. Cranberry juice, orange juice, and pineapple juice also
inhibited adherence of type 1 fimbriated E. coli, most likely because of
their fructose content. However, the two latter juices did not inhibit the P
fimbriated bacteria. We conclude that cranberry juice contains at least two
inhibitors of lectin-mediated adherence of uropathogens to eucaryotic cells.
Further studies are required to establish whether these inhibitors play a
role in vivo.
PMID: 2653218 Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi 1989 Dec;80(12):1816-23
[Anti-bacterial defense mechanism of the urinary bladder. Role of mannose in
urine]. [Article in Japanese] Toyota S, Fukushi Y, Katoh S, Orikasa S,
PMID: 2576290, UI: 90172805
[See also Dr. Jonathan Wright's article on mannose and urinary tract
infections online http://www.tahoma-clinic.com/mannose.shtml ] Am J Vet Res
Use of specific sugars to inhibit bacterial adherence to equine endometrium
King SS, Young DA, Nequin LG, Carnevale EM
Department of Animal Science, Food, and Nutrition, College of Agriculture
and Science, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale 62901, USA. OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether specific sugars inhibit adhesion of Streptococcus
zooepidemicus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli to equine
endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. SAMPLE POPULATION: Endometrial biopsy
specimens collected during estrus from 7 healthy mares. PROCEDURE:
Endometrial specimens on glass slides were incubated for 30 minutes at 4 C
with suspensions of S. zooepidemicus, P. aeruginosa, or E. coli in
phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBSS) alone or with various
concentrations of D-(+)-mannose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine,
D-(+)-glucose, galactose, or N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. Inhibition of
bacterial adherence was determined by comparing adhesion of bacteria (i.e.,
percentage of glandular epithelial cells with adherent bacteria) suspended
in each sugar solution with that of bacteria suspended in PBSS. RESULTS:
Mannose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine inhibited adhesion of E. coli and P.
aeruginosa to epithelial cells, whereas only mannose inhibited adhesion of
S. zooepidemicus. The other sugars did not affect bacterial adherence.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mannose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine
appear to play a role in adhesion of S. zooepidemicus, P. aeruginosa, and E.
coli to equine endometrium. In horses with uterine infections, use of sugars
to competitively displace bacteria from attachment sites on cells may
provide an adjunct to antibiotic treatment. PMID: 10772112
Effect of D-mannose and D-glucose on Escherichia coli bacteriuria in rats,
Urol Res 11(2):97-102, 1983.
Mannose-sensitive adherence of Escherichia coli to epithelial cells from
women with recurrent urinary tract infections, J Urol 131(5):906-910, May
Mannose-sensitive hemagglutination in the absence of piliation in
Escherichia coli, Mol Microb 4(8):1311-1318, August 1990.
Mannose Sensitive Adherence of Escherichia coli to Epithelial Cells.
Eighty-First Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology.
Dallas, Texas. March 2-4, 1981.
Effect of D-Mannose on Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Vaginal
Epithelial Cells and Hemagglutination. American Urological Association.
Seventy-Sixth Annual Meeting. Boston, Massachusetts. May 11, 1981
Prevention of Escherichia coli Bacteriuria in Rats by D-Mannose. American
Urological Association. Boston, Massachusetts. May 11, 1981.
Regulation of Mannose-Sensitive Hemagglutination in Clinical Isolates of
Escherichia coli. In Kass EH, Svanborg-Eden C, eds:
Host-Parasite Interactions in Urinary Tract Infections 115-121, Chicago,
Illinois, 1989. The University of Chicago Press.
Contribution of Escherichia coli Type l Pili to Ascending Urinary Tract
Colonization in Mice. eds: Host-Parasite Interactions in Urinary Tract
Infections 341-347, Chicago, Illinois, 1989. The University of Chicago
Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P
fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells.
Keywords: d-mannose bladder infections, d-mannose
urinary tract infections, d-mannose research
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